Diseases of the teeth and gums can seriously worsen the quality of life and lead to complications in other body parts, such as gastrointestinal tract problems and other health disorders. Taking care of the mouth cavity is something that one has to do throughout the entire life. Lack of attention, improper care or other factors may lead to various dental diseases.
Tooth decay is the most widely-spread dental problem. Inappropriate oral hygiene is the main factor that may result in tooth decay (caries). Bacteria that live on the teeth surface discharge substances that destroy tooth enamel. Normally, they live on food remains in the mouth. To avoid this problem, one should clean the teeth or rinse the mouth after each meal.
As a rule, the beginning of caries does not have any symptoms. Enamel destruction can be detected only with the help of modern dental methods. As the disease develops, a small visible spot appears on the enamel surface. Over time the spot turns into a cavity. This process is accompanied with increased sensitivity when taking cold, hot, sweet and sour food. More severe stages lead to nerve damage and severe toothache.
Treatment for caries involves healing the damaged tissues. The cavity in the tooth is restored with special materials that repeat the tooth anatomy. Moreover, the patient is recommended to use special toothpastes and rinses that prevent the relapse of the dental damage.
Untreated caries can result not only in tooth loss, but in other complications, for example, pulpitis. This condition occurs when the inflammatory process spreads to the pulp. Another possible reason is bacteria, that penetrate the pulp through enamel damages. Systematic inflammations in the body may also end up in pulpitis, since the malignant microorganisms enter the tooth tissues through the blood stream.
Pulpitis is manifested by severe toothache, mainly in the evening or at nighttime. The pain increases when eating hot and cold food. Painful sensations appear when the affected tooth is pressed on. Sometimes, pulpitis is accompanied with fever. A severe form of pulpits may cause pain in the whole jaw.
To treat pulpits, a dentist has to open the cavity, that is inflamed. Those tissues that were damaged have to be removed to prevent the spreading of the infection. Procedures with the usage of antiseptics and treating medicines kill the bacteria and heal the damaged area. The next step is to fill in the formed canal with special substances. In some cases, the treatment includes nerve removal. In most severe cases, there is a risk to lose the whole tooth. However, treatment plan may vary from person to person. It is chosen individually, depending on the disease severity, patient’s age and other factors.